- His old surname was Kashiwamura. Later on, because the Nakahara family (his mother's side) was a wealthy landowner, his surname was changed to Nakahara.
- He greatly looked up to Miyazawa Kenji, and he had been noted to hum Miyazawa's poems from time to time.
- He was 151.5 cm (about 4'11.5") in height.
- He was a prodigy in elementary school. However, when his brother died in 1915, he turned to composing poetry out of sorrow. He later failed middle school because he was too engrossed in literature.
- He translated around 60 poems by the French poet Arthur Rimbaud into Japanese. Due to their similar lifestyles, he gained the nickname 'The Japanese Rimbaud'.
- He had a mistress, Hasegawa Yasuko, when he was 17; she was noted to be older and taller than him. However, the following year, she left Nakahara to live with his best friend Kobayashi Hideo, which frustrated him greatly.
- After Kobayashi left Hasegawa, she married and had a child; she named Nakahara Chuuya the child's godfather.
- He once spent a month in jail for smashing street lamps while in a drunken rage.
- Chuuya was noted to adore children, and spoiled them rotten. When his eldest son, Fumiya, died at the age of two, Chuuya had a mental breakdown and had to be hospitalized for a month.
- He remained close friends with Kobayashi Hideo all his life, and entrusted the manuscript for Songs of Bygone Days to him while on his deathbed.
- He died at age 30 due to cerebral meningitis.
- After his death, Hasegawa Yasuko established the Nakahara Chuuya Prize to honor him. The prize only lasted a few years, with Tachihara Michizou as one of its notable winners. Another award with the same name was established in 1996 by Yamaguchi City.
- It is possible to buy an exact replica of his hat from the Nakahara Chuuya Memorial Museum.