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See page Writers for a full list of the characters.

America

アメリカ
Amerika

Instead of being an actual school or a literary movement, this faction purely consists of writers originated from America, as opposed to the majority of Japanese writers.

Edgar Allan Poe, H. P. Lovecraft, F. Scott Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway are part of this group.

Araragi School

アララギ派
Araragiha

This school is comprised of writers for Araragi (Japanese Yew), a literary magazine established by Itou Sachio in honor of his mentor Masaoka Shiki.[1] Shiki had a tanka group "Negishi Tanka Society" consisting of his friends and students, but after his passing away in 1902, Sachio started a magazine Ashibi (Japanese Andromeda) for the remaining members of the group in 1903. Later this magazine was base for Araragi (阿羅々木) launched in 1908, for which Sachio gathered his own students and people who once had been followers of Shiki. After merging with another magazine, the magazine's name changed to アララギ (Araragi).[2]

Itou Sachio and Saitou Mokichi are part of this school.

Decadent School

無頼派
Buraiha

The common trait of this school's writers is that their novels portray the changing lives of postwar Japanese people - the anxieties, despair and confusions - and describe characters who overtly disregard social conventions. These writers were also known to lead a "decadent" lifestyle.[3]

Dazai Osamu, Oda Sakunosuke, Sakaguchi Ango and Dan Kazuo are part of this school.

England

イギリス
Igirisu

Instead of being an actual school or a literary movement, this faction purely consists of writers originated from England, as opposed to the majority of Japanese writers.

Lewis Carroll and Conan Doyle are part of this group.

France

フランス
Furansu

Instead of being an actual school or a literary movement, this faction purely consists of writers originated from France, as opposed to the majority of Japanese writers.

Arthur Rimbaud and Charles Baudelaire are part of this group.

Germany

ドイツ
Doitsu

Instead of being an actual school or a literary movement, this faction purely consists of writers originated from Germany, as opposed to the majority of Japanese writers.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe is part of this group.

Kitahara Clan

北原一門
Kitahara Ichimon

The famous national poet Kitahara Hakushuu is the leader and namesake of this clan. Its definition is unknown, but seems to include Kitahara as the central figure and his close contemporaries.

Kitahara's disciple Hagiwara Sakutarou and close friend Muroo Saisei are part of this clan.

Leisure School

余裕派
Yoyuuha

A romantic school formed by Masaoka Shiki that aims to capture the "leisure" in life, essentially rejecting mundane affairs and enjoying nature and art.[4]

Beside Shiki, Natsume Souseki and Mori Ougai are also part of this school.

Masaoka Clan

正岡一門
Masaoka Ichimon

This group includes Masaoka Shiki's disciples, who studied poetry (haiku and tanka) under him.

Kawahigashi Hekigotou and Takahama Kyoshi are members of this clan. Itou Sachio is also one of Shiki's students, but in the game he isn't listed under this group.

Mita School

三田派
Mitaha

This school is comprised of writers for Mita Bungaku (三田文学, "Mita Literature"), a literary magazine launched in May 1910 by Keio University Literature Department. Nagai Kafuu was the first chief editor of the magazine.[5] The magazine was known for its tendency of "aestheticism" (耽美, tanbi), "surrealism" and "anti-naturalism" in the works published in it.[6]

Nagai Kafuu, Satou Haruo and Miki Rofuu are part of this school.

Morning Star

明星
Myoujou

This school includes writers for the Myoujou, the magazine for the New Poetry Society organized by Yosano Tekkan and his wife Yosano Akiko in April 1900. The magazine's style is inclined towards a sensual style in the romantic movement.[7]

Takamura Koutarou, Ishikawa Takuboku and Yoshii Isamu are part of this school. Meanwhile Kitahara Hakushuu isn't listed as part of this group in the game, he's officially a member and listed under this group in various Print Publications.

Natsume Clan

夏目一門
Natsume Ichimon

This school consists of Natsume Souseki's various disciples and fans, who would also participate in "Thursday Meetings" (木曜会, mokuyoukai) held at Souseki's residence to discuss about literature and enjoy time with their mentor.[8]

Suzuki Miekichi and Uchida Hyakken are members of this clan. Some other writers like Akutagawa Ryuunosuke, Kume Masao, Matsuoka Yuzuru and so on are also students of Souseki, but in the game they are listed under other factions.

Neo-Aesthetic School

新興芸術派
Shinkou Geijutsuha

A school formed in around 1930 by a group of literary students in opposition to the rise of Materialist philosophy and proletian literature, which was gaining popularity at the time.[9]

Hori Tatsuo, Ibuse Masuji and Kajii Motojirou are part of this school.

Neo-Thought

新思潮
Shinshichou

Late-Taishou era Pure Literature writers for the third and fourth generation of the literary journal "Neo Thought", also known as "New Currents of Thought" depending on translation. Term "Neo-Thought School" (新思潮派, shinshichouha) may also be seen of the group at times. The magazine was founded in 1907 in Tokyo Imperial University.[10] Budding writers like Tanizaki Junichirou were part of the first generation of the magazine's publication, but later on the other generations consisting Akutagawa Ryuunosuke, Kikuchi Kan, Kume Masao and others also found the magazine as a stepping stone to the literary circles.[11]

Akutagawa Ryuunosuke, Tanizaki Junichirou, Kikuchi Kan, Kume Masao, Yamamoto Yuuzou and Matsuoka Yuzuru are part of this school.

New Sensation School

新感覚派
Shinkankakuha

A lyrical school famous for their effects on startling images, mingled sense impressions, and an abruptness of transition, derived from both Japanese haiku poetry and a jumble of European influences.[12]

Yokomitsu Riichi and Kawabata Yasunari are members, as well as leaders of this school.

Ozaki Clan

尾崎一門
Ozaki Ichimon

This school includes Ozaki Kouyou and his disciples. At the time, Ozaki Kouyou was the leader of the literary scene and many aspiring young writers studied under him.[13] Among these writers were Izumi Kyouka, who continued to write in his mentor's style, and Tokuda Shuusei, who later turned into Naturalism. Kyouka and Shuusei along with Yanagawa Shunyou and Oguri Fuuyou were called "The Four Heavenly Kings" (四天王, shitennou) of Ozaki school.[14]

Ozaki Kouyou, Izumi Kyouka and Tokuda Shuusei are part of this school.

Proletariat

プロレタリア
Proletaria

A movement rather than a literary circle, Proletarian literature became popular from around the late Taishou era to early Shouwa era. Its writers sought to portray discontent with social and gender inequalities within the framework of the working classes and working-class life. In other words, literature with a political agenda.[15]

Nakano Shigeharu, Kobayashi Takiji, and Tokunaga Sunao are part of this group.

Russia

ロシア
Roshia

Instead of being an actual school or a literary movement, this faction purely consists of writers originated from Russia, as opposed to the majority of Japanese writers.

Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky are part of this group.

White Birch School

白樺派
Shirakabaha

A school whose members were mostly of the propertied or aristocratic class. As a result, White Birch School members were among the few Japanese of the time to whom an almost complete freedom of thought and action was permitted. They highly valued the development of idealism, humanism and individualism.[16] At first the group consisted of three smaller groups publishing their own literary journals; "Fallow Land" (望野, bouya), "Wheat" (麦, mugi) and "Peach Orchard" (桃園, momozono), but towards the end of 1909, the groups joined hands and started publishing a literary magazine "White Birch" (白樺, shirakaba) in April 1910. Mushanokouji Saneatsu was one of the key people and seen sort of as a "leader" of the group, which he himself dubbed as "a group of friends writing literary works". The publication was also noted to introduce art from the West to Japanese audience, which the group actively imported from abroad, Auguste Rodin being one of the notable artists who the White Birch School praised and promoted. Among the literary magazines of the time, White Birch was on the more expensive side than average literary publication.[17]

Shiga Naoya, Mushanokouji Saneatsu, Arishima Takeo and Satomi Ton are part of this group.


Other

This section is for groups or literary movements that officially aren't listed as factions in the game, but are significant to some writers and thus are mentioned in the game in some form.

Aestheticism

耽美主義
Tanbishugi

Also known as "Aesthetic School" (耽美派, tanbiha). A literary movement from Europe, which was advocated most notably by Tanizaki Junichirou and Nagai Kafuu.[18] This literary movement pursued true beauty of literature by abandoning the morals and rigidness of forcing literary pieces to have a message to its readers, focusing on enjoyment and senses instead.

Friends of the Ink Stone

硯友社
Ken'yuusha

A literary group for young literary enthusiasts consisting of Ozaki Kouyou, Yamada Bimyou and others. The group launched Japan's first literary magazine Garakuta Bunko (我楽多文庫) in 1885.[19] While the group disbanded in 1903 with Kouyou's passing away (but the magazine continued publication), the group left big contributions to the history of Japanese language and literature. Other notable writers of the group were Hirotsu Kazuo's father Hirotsu Ryuurou, as well as some students of Kouyou including Izumi Kyouka and Tokuda Shuusei.[20]

Naturalism

自然主義
Shizenshugi

Also known as "Naturalistic School" (自然派, shizenha). A literary movement originating from France and the French Naturalism, key inspiration coming from authors Zola, Maupassant etc.[21] Writers Shimazaki Touson and Tayama Katai are considered as the big two who established this genre in Japan, which led to the huge popularity of I-novels that some later movements came to also use.[22] Other notable authors are Kunikida Doppo, Tokuda Shuusei, Iwano Houmei, Masamune Hakuchou etc. In the game, basically all writers who use bow as their main weapon are writers of Naturalism.

Satou Clan

佐藤一門
Satou Ichimon

A group consisting of Satou Haruo and his students. It has been said that Satou had over 3000 students through his lifetime, but the exact number and definition of "student" in the first place remains unknown. Among these "students" there were Dazai Osamu, Dan Kazuo, Ibuse Masuji and many more who would end up winning even the most prestigious literary prizes like the Akutagawa Prize and Naoki Prize.[23] Of these students, Ibuse Masuji ended up being another mentor and a close friend to Dazai Osamu. In the game, Satou, Dazai, Dan and Ibuse have been seen together in some occasions, usually involving the student trio (especially Dazai) troubling their mentor Satou.


References

  1. Araragi
  2. 短歌のこと アララギ (About Tanka - Araragi)
  3. The Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literature, Joshua S. Mostow, 2003.
  4. 余裕派 (Leisure School)
  5. 三田文学について (About Mita Bungaku)
  6. Mita Bungaku
  7. Myoujou
  8. 木曜会 (Thursday Meetings)
  9. Encyclopedia of Literary Modernism, Paul Poplawski, 2003
  10. Shinshichou
  11. Modern Japanese Writers, Jay Rubin, 2001.
  12. Introduction of Yokomitsu Riichi's Machine, Edward Seidensticker.
  13. Ozaki Kouyou
  14. The Similitude of Blossoms - A Critical Biography of Izumi Kyōka, Charles Shirō Inouye, 1998.
  15. Routledge Handbook of Modern Japanese Literature, Rachael Hutchinson and ‎Leith Douglas Morton, 2016.
  16. Shirakabaha
  17. Meeting the Sensei - The Role of the Master in Shirakaba Writers, Maya Mortimer, 2000.
  18. A visual guide to modern Japanese fiction (I)
  19. 硯友社の沿革 (The History of "Friends of the Ink Stone") by Ozaki Kouyou
  20. 硯友社 (Friends of the Ink Stone)
  21. Rituals of Self-Revelation: Shishōsetsu as Literary Genre, Irmela Hijiya-Kirschnereit, 1996.
  22. The Rhetoric of Confession:Shishosetsu in Early Twentieth-Century Japansese Fiction, Edward Fowler, 1988.
  23. 門下から多数の芥川賞・直木賞作家を輩出した佐藤春夫 (Satou Haruo who produced many Akutagawa Prize and Naoki Prize authors from his students)


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